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Cue sports sometimes written cuesports , also known as billiard sports ,   are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick , which is used to strike billiard balls and thereby cause them to move around a cloth -covered billiards table bounded by elastic bumpers known as cushions.
Historically, the umbrella term was billiards. While that familiar name is still employed by some as a generic label for all such games, the word's usage has splintered into more exclusive competing meanings in various parts of the world.
For example, in British and Australian English , billiards usually refers exclusively to the game of English billiards , while in American and Canadian English it is sometimes used to refer to a particular game or class of games, or to all cue games in general, depending upon dialect and context.
In colloquial usage, the term billiards may be used to refer to pocket billiards games, such as pool , snooker , or Russian pyramid.
There are other variants that make use of obstacles and targets, and table-top games played with disks instead of balls.
All cue sports are generally regarded to have evolved into indoor games from outdoor stick-and-ball lawn games — specifically those retroactively termed ground billiards  — and as such to be related to the historical games jeu de mail and palle-malle , and modern trucco , croquet , and golf, and more distantly to the stickless bocce and bowls.
The word billiard may have evolved from the French word billart or billette , meaning 'stick', in reference to the mace , an implement similar to a golf putter , and which was the forerunner to the modern cue ; however, the term's origin could have been from French bille , meaning 'ball'.
Cue itself came from queue , the French word for ' tail '. This refers to the early practice of using the tail or butt of the mace, instead of its club foot, to strike the ball when it lay against a rail cushion.
A recognizable form of billiards was played outdoors in the s, and was reminiscent of croquet. King Louis XI of France — had the first known indoor billiard table.
By , the thin butt end of the mace began to be used not only for shots under the cushion which itself was originally only there as a preventative method to stop balls from rolling off , but players increasingly preferred it for other shots as well.
The footless, straight cue as it is known today was finally developed by about Initially, the mace was used to push the balls, rather than strike them.
The newly developed striking cue provided a new challenge. Cushions began to be stuffed with substances to allow the balls to rebound, in order to enhance the appeal of the game.
After a transitional period where only the better players would use cues, the cue came to be the first choice of equipment.
The demand for tables and other equipment was initially met in Europe by John Thurston and other furniture makers of the era. The early balls were made from wood and clay , but the rich preferred to use ivory.
Early billiard games involved various pieces of additional equipment, including the "arch" related to the croquet hoop , "port" a different hoop and "king" a pin or skittle near the arch in the s, but other game variants, relying on the cushions and eventually on pockets cut into them , were being formed that would go on to play fundamental roles in the development of modern billiards.
The early croquet-like games eventually led to the development of the carom or carambole billiards category — what most non- Commonwealth and non-US speakers mean by the word billiards.
These games, which once completely dominated the cue sports world but have declined markedly in many areas over the last few generations, are games played with three or sometimes four balls, on a table without holes and without obstructions or targets in most cases , in which the goal is generally to strike one object ball with a cue ball , then have the cue ball rebound off of one or more of the cushions and strike a second object ball.
Variations include straight rail , balkline , one-cushion , three-cushion , five-pins , and four-ball , among others. Over time, a type of obstacle returned, originally as a hazard and later as a target, in the form of pockets , or holes partly cut into the table bed and partly into the cushions, leading to the rise of pocket billiards , including "pool" games such as eight-ball, nine-ball, straight pool and one-pocket ; Russian pyramid ; snooker ; English billiards and others.
In the United States pool and billiards had died out for a bit, but between and pool and billiards became very popular. Players in annual championships began to receive their own cigarette cards.
This was mainly due to the fact that it was a popular pastime for troops to take their minds off from battle. However, by the end of World War II pool and billiards began to die down once again.
It was not until when the film "The Hustler" came out that sparked a new interest in the game. Now the game is generally a well-known game and has many players of all different skill levels.
There are few more cheerful sights, when the evenings are long, and the weather dull, than a handsome, well-lighted billiard room, with the smooth, green surface of the billiard table; the ivory balls flying noiselessly here and there, or clicking musically together.
The games with regulated international professional competition, if not others, have been referred to as "sports" or "sporting" events, not simply "games", since at the latest.
Snooker, though technically a pocket billiards variant and closely related in its equipment and origin to the game of English billiards, is a professional sport organized at the international level, and its rules bear little resemblance to those of modern pool, pyramid and other such games.
A "Billiards" category encompassing pool, snooker and carom was featured in the World Games , held in Duisburg , Germany, and the Asian Games also saw the introduction of a "Cue sports" category.
In Russian pyramid there are sixteen balls, as in pool, but fifteen are white and numbered, and the cue ball is usually red. Carom billiards balls are larger than pool balls, having a diameter of Snooker balls are smaller than American-style pool balls with a diameter of English billiard balls are the same size as snooker balls and come in sets of three balls two cue balls and a red, an object ball.
Other games, such as bumper pool , have custom ball sets. Billiard balls have been made from many different materials since the start of the game, including clay, bakelite , celluloid , crystallite , ivory , plastic, steel and wood.
The dominant material from until the early 20th century was ivory. The search for a substitute for ivory use was not for environmental concerns, but based on economic motivation and fear of danger for elephant hunters.
The first viable substitute was celluloid , invented by John Wesley Hyatt in , but the material was volatile, sometimes exploding during manufacture, and was highly flammable.
There are many sizes and styles of pool and billiard tables. Generally, tables are rectangles twice as long as they are wide.
Most pool tables are known as 7-, 8-, or 9-footers, referring to the length of the table's long side. Full-size snooker and English billiard tables are 12 feet 3.
Pool halls tend to have 9-foot 2. Pubs will typically use 7-foot 2. Ten-foot tables remain the standard size for carom billiard games.
The slates on modern carom tables are usually heated to stave off moisture and provide a consistent playing surface. The length of the pool table will typically be a function of space, with many homeowners purchasing an 8-foot 2.
Full-size pool tables are 4. High-quality tables have a bed made of thick slate, in three pieces to prevent warping and changes due to temperature and humidity.
Smaller bar tables are most commonly made with a single piece of slate. The closed polygon case is related to Poncelet's porism.
One can also consider billiard paths on polygonal billiard tables. The only closed billiard path of a single circuit in an acute triangle is the pedal triangle.
There are an infinite number of multiple-circuit paths, but all segments are parallel to the sides of the pedal triangle. There exists a closed billiard path inside a cyclic quadrilateral if its circumcenter lies inside the quadrilateral Wells There are four identical closed billiard paths inside and touching each face of a cube such that each leg on the path has the same length Hayward ; Steinhaus , ; Gardner , pp.
This path is in the form of a chair-shaped hexagon, and each leg has length. Lewis Carroll Charles Dodgson also considered this problem Weaver There are three identical closed billiard paths inside and touching each face of a tetrahedron such that each leg of the path has the same length Gardner , pp.
These were discovered by J. Conway and independently by Hayward For a tetrahedron with unit side lengths, each leg has length.
Conway has shown that period orbits exist in all tetrahedra , but it is not known if there are periodic orbits in every polyhedron Croft et al.
Altshiller Court, N. New York: Dial Press, pp. Bakst, A. Mathematical Puzzles and Pastimes. New York: Van Nostrand, pp. Bellman, R. New York: Academic Press, Boldrighini, C.
Coxeter, H. Geometry Revisited. Washington, DC: Math. Croft, H. Game details. Added on 25 Sep Player's Game Screenshots.
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Entre 2,10 m et 3,60 m? Vous y retrouverez un large choix de billards contemporains et classique, ainsi des billards snooker et des billards russe.Play Pool and Billiards games. Billiards is an exciting, competitive sport played by a diverse crowd. From the local bar hangout to upscale billiard rooms at home, billiards supplies are must-have essentials if you want to continue having fun. When it comes to billiard supplies, we offer a wide selection of all the essentials and then some!. Billiards, any of various games played on a rectangular table with a designated number of small balls and a long stick called a cue. The table and the cushioned rail bordering the table are topped with a feltlike tight-fitting cloth. Carom, or French, billiards is played with three balls on a table that has no pockets. Shop Top Billiards Products Best prices around! More Featured Products Vector Caliber C15 $ FREE shipping Aramith Tournament Black Ball set $ FREE. Game details Welcome to the wonderful world of Billiards! Pocket all the balls in the shortest time possible to get a higher score. Beat the pros and be on top of the leaderboard!. Straight Pool Billiards kann gegen den Computer oder gegen einen Freund gespielt werden. Blast Billards Billard. Billard oder Billardspiel ist ein Spiel, bei dem zwei Personen oder zwei Teams gegeneinander spielen. Mit dem Queue werden die Billardkugeln auf einem mit Billardtuch bespannten Billardtisch gestoßen. Dabei stößt der Spieler mit dem Queue nur die. Billard [ˈbɪljaʁt] oder Billardspiel ist ein Spiel, bei dem zwei Personen oder zwei Teams gegeneinander spielen. Mit dem Queue werden die Billardkugeln (oft. Beim Billard treten zwei Spieler oder Teams gegeneinander an und spielen auf einem Billardtisch. Sie sind mit einem sogenannten "Queue" ausgestattet (der.